Oleander City: Historical Fiction & The Constellation of Possibilities

In this article, international bestselling author Matt Bondurant showcases his new historical fiction: "Oleander City."

​Based on the historical tragedy of the hurricane of 1900 that decimated Galveston, Texas, leaving the island city in ruins and killing thousands, Oleander City tells the true story of the horrors, secrets and stories around this infamous disaster.

Only shallow people and charlatans begin with perfect knowledge of what it is they mean to say. An honest writer begins in ignorance and writes his way to the truth. David Kirby, poet

The word “truth” is a bit controversial when it comes to historical fiction. Some authors of historical novels claim they only “stick to the facts,” while others acknowledge and celebrate their expansive creative license. When I wrote Oleander City: A Novel Based on the True Story, I did so with the understanding that our notions of “truth” are complex, and that what we accept as historical actuality is often incomplete or misguided. We all know about eye-witness testimony. Even the best efforts at recorded history, such as newspapers, letters, diaries, government records, books, etc., can be specious at best, in many cases mixed with many decades of rumor, myth, ignorance, personal bias, and deliberate manipulation. My first historical novel, The Wettest County in the World (titled Lawless in the movie tie-in edition), taught me a lot about this problem. I learned that in order to create a compelling narrative (the end goal for any fiction writer) I would need to be vigilant and unsparing while researching. I also learned to lean into my personal motivations, which was to seek out the gaps between what I call “the points of light,” or the moments that “really happened.”

Oleander City came to me in the form of several historical footnotes, small incidents and figures that were part of a much larger catastrophe. In the aftermath of the Galveston Hurricane of 1900, the worst natural disaster in American history, Veteran Jewish boxer Joe Choynski, an enigmatic, theater-loving, fashionable, well-read gentleman from an intellectual family, traveled to Galveston in a fundraising boxing match with the young up-and-comer Jack Johnson, who would go on to be the greatest heavyweight boxer of all time. Clara Barton, founder of the American Red Cross and aging septuagenarian was on her last mission to ease the suffering of the hurricane “storm-orphans.” Then I discovered the tragic story of the Sisters of the Incarnate Word orphanage in Galveston, where 93 girls and a half-dozen nuns perished in the storm, all of them bound together by a lengths of rope that they hoped would keep them from being swept away. These are the facts we know.

Early in my research at the Rosenberg Library in Galveston I found a famous and somewhat peculiar photo. It was taken the day Jack Johnson and Joe Choynski were released from the Galveston jail, having served twenty-three days together for an illegal prize-fight, a group of men posing on the jailhouse steps, Joe shaking hands with the sheriff with Jack looking on. But there was also a single, mysterious figure, unknown to history; a little girl sitting on the steps of the Galveston jailhouse, wearing a rumpled dress, a sour look on her face, an old hound dog squatting next to her. Who was she? Why was she there?

Jack & Joe being released from Galveston Jail, March 21, 1901. Sheriff Henry Thomas shakes Joe's hand as Jack stands between them, surrounded by deputies and other city officials. The little girl (and dog) in the foreground are unknown.

I included this picture at the end of the book because it really was the catalyst. Because in that moment of discovery I was suddenly beyond the known history of this event; I was exploring the possible world of this little girl and imagining all the plausible ways to describe how she came to be sitting at the feet of these two famous boxers on this auspicious/infamous day. The people of Galveston in 1900 lived and died in real and dramatic ways, but due to the passage of time and circumstance it is difficult – I would say impossible – the render their lives with complete accuracy or fidelity to actuality. That’s when I knew there was a novel to be written.

So then how to account for this little girl sitting in a picture celebrating two famous boxers being released from jail? I had some material to work with such as the tragedy of the orphans of the Sister of the Incarnate Word. In the days following the hurricane, groups of bodies of the young girls were found buried under the sand and debris, tied together with rope, sometimes still clutched in the arms of a nun who refused to let go even in death. I also knew that for months after the storm there were dozens, possibly hundreds of now newly-orphaned children, the “storm orphans” as they were called, hiding among the rubble, scavenging to survive, some of them so traumatized by the carnage they refused the attentions of Clara Barton and the Red Cross, who made caring for these orphans their principle charge. I also knew that masked vigilante groups were using the chaos of the disaster to hunt down “undesirables.” There are historical reports of dozens of men on horseback galloping down the beaches at night with burlap sacks over their heads, hunting down immigrants, Jews, and black folks, and performing violent extrajudicial executions. All of this happening at the same time, in the same place.

The three principal characters in Oleander City are all different levels or combinations of historical fact and fiction: Joe Choynski is a real historical figure that I presumed upon with the tools available to a fiction writer, while trying to stay true to the historical record of him as a person. Hester, the small girl in the photo, is an imagined character almost solely based on that single image. Diana is a fully fabricated character with no direct historical precedent, though she is based on the nurses and ladies that worked for Clara Barton at the Red Cross during that time. I have imagined a number of things for which there is no record, and I have presumed upon the actual historical figures with the liberty that is granted a novelist. My intention is to reach that truth that lies beyond the poorly recorded and understood world of actualities. I wanted to connect the points of light (the world of actualities) to create an image, a story, that might illuminate the dark spaces between.

I needed to bring Clara Barton and the Red Cross, Joe Choynski and Jack Johnson, the storm orphans, and the malevolent force in the vigilante mobs, all together in one loop, to create clear, plausible connections between them. And at this point it becomes a series of “what if” scenarios, which for me is one of the great joys of writing fiction: what if the girl in the photo was the sole (unknown) survivor of the Sisters of the Incarnate Word? What if the psychological trauma had made her unable to trust anyone, now that she had been orphaned twice-over? How would she survive? What if she encountered the Red Cross nurses, the masked vigilantes, our two boxing gentlemen?

This is what I call the “constellation of possibilities.” In Oleander City I took several of these known, historical events and used them as guideposts, the points of light in the heavens. The plot and other elements that I devised creates the plausible connections – the lines that connect the dots – and then the constellation, hopefully, becomes visible in the night sky of the readers imagination. There is still so much that we don’t know about these people and this tragedy. There is always so much more to discover, but I hope with this book I have brought a small bit of light to that darkness. All we can do is start from ignorance, and try to write our way to the truth.

Places to Buy 'Oleander City'
The Great Storm

Galveston is known for many things – from its beaches to its historic architecture – but being home to the deadliest storm in U.S. history is one of its less kind claims to fame.

The Great Storm, as it is now called in history, struck Galveston on Sept. 8, 1900, claiming the lives of more than 10,000 and taking its place in infamy. Read on to learn more about the history of this devastating storm, how Galveston responded to make itself one of the world's most resilient cities, and ways you can explore and honor its victims/ survivors today.

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Where the Texas Coast begins.

See the latest stories from our blog, and start dreaming of your perfect Galveston travel experience.


Matt Bondurant Author

Matt Bondurant’s latest novel Oleander City will be in book stores nationwide June 14, 2022. His previous novels include The Night Swimmer, which was featured in the New York Times Book Review, Outside Magazine, and The Daily Beast, among others.